This report presents some results of work done with a Doppler technique for studying ionospheric disturbances. The theoretical results include a calculation of the frequency shifts to be expected from ch * anges in the parameters of a parabolic model iono Topics: Solar flares., Ionosphere.
Rob Bingham is in the studio to talk about solor flares, and other evnts happening at the sunriver Nature Center and Observatory Topics: Sunriver Nature Center, Observatory, 1110 KBND, Your Town, solar flares
byMcCrory, Jean L.; Derr, Janice; Cavanagh, Peter R
This research compared ground reaction forces during overground (1G) running and zero-gravity ty (0G) simulated treadmill running at a full body weight load in two restraint harness designs. Topics: SOLAR FLARES, X RAYS, POINT SOURCES, IMAGING TECHNIQUES, SPECTROSCOPY
Astronauts: (first) Charles Conrad, Jr., Paul J. Weitz, and Joseph P. Kerwin; (second) Alan L. Bean, Owen K. Garriott, and Jack R. Lousma; and (third) Gerald P. Carr, William R. Pogue, and Edward G. Gibson Launch date of unmanned space station: May 14, 1973 Launch dates of manned missions: May 25, 1973; July 28, 1973; and November 16, 1973 Reviews the repair operation of the first mission, proving mans presence is vital to successful space exploration. Shows medical experiments looking at man... Topics: Skylab, Space Station, space exploration, solar flares, NASA, JSC
This handbook presents ''Before This Decade Is Out...'' Personal Reflections on the Appolo Program. The accounts included in this book are a small sampling of the large number of oral histories that have been conducted under the auspices of the NASA history program, since near the beginning of the Agency. They also represent the many personal contributions made during Project Apollo, the single largest peacetime endeavor in American history. These recollections span the origins, management, and... Topics: IMAGING TECHNIQUES, SOLAR FLARES, COLLIMATORS, X RAYS, SPECTROSCOPY, ROTATION
You are going to die. Seriously. If science tells us anything, it is that any number of natural disasters can kill you at any moment. The one that scientists happen to be up in arms about this week is solar flares. But it's not all gloom and doom. We discuss chick flicks, Facebook, Sea World, Google, and the internet. We also talk a lot about scientific methods and a recent study that shows liberals are "smarter" than conservatives. Also, we find out why killer whales are called... Topics: news stories, killer whales, Google, science, solar flares
Seasonal and interannual variations of the net surface heating F(sub NET) and sea surface temperature tendency (T(sub s)/dt) in the tropical eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans are studied. The surface heat fluxes are derived from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager and Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite radiance measurements for the period October 1997-September 2000. It is found that the magnitude of solar heating is lager than that of evaporative cooling, but the spatial... Topics: SOLAR FLARES, CORONAL MASS EJECTION, PARTICLE ENERGY, SOLAR CORPUSCULAR RADIATION, SOLAR STORMS,...
The Extreme Solar Storms of October to November 2003 "In recent decades, humans have come to rely on space technology for an ever-increasing variety of purposes, including human exploration of the solar system, scientific research, national defense, and commercial activities. The field of space weather seeks to understand and predict variability in the space environment. The Sun is the source of all space weather, and the origins of major space weather storms can be traced to explosive... Topics: EMP, CME, Space environment, Solar activity, Solar flares, Space weather, Electromagnetic Pulses
byRevercomb, H. E.; Sromovsky, L. A.; Suomi, V. E.; Boese, R. W
The four entry probes of the Pioneer Venus mission measured the radiative net flux in the atmosphere of Venus at latitudes of 60 deg. N, 31 deg. S, 27 deg. S, and 4 deg. N. The three higher latitude probes carried instruments (small probe net flux radiometers; SNFR) with external sensors. The measured SNFR net fluxes are too large below the clouds, but an error source and correction scheme have been found (H. E. Revercomb, L. A. Sromovsky, and V. E. Suomi, 1982, Icarus 52, 279-300). The... Topics: SOLAR FLARES, IMAGING TECHNIQUES, ASTROPHYSICS, PHOTONS, GAMMA RAYS, COLLIMATORS, ALBEDO,...
byBullock, Mark A.; Stoker, Carol R.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Zent, Aaron P
The Viking Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer failed to detect organic compounds on Mars, and both the Viking Labeled Release and the Viking Gas Exchange experiments indicated a reactive soil surface. These results have led to the widespread belief that there are oxidants in the martian soil. Since H2O2 is produced by photochemical processes in the atmosphere of Mars, and has been shown in the laboratory to reproduce closely the Viking LR results, it is a likely candidate for a martian soil... Topics: MAGNETIC FIELD CONFIGURATIONS, SUNSPOTS, FREE ENERGY, SOLAR FLARES, ELECTRIC CURRENT, X RAYS,...
NASA's Solar Sail project, directed by L'Garde of Tustin, Calif., plans to take this innovative technology beyond Earth's orbit. The spacecraft will have a "sail" one quarter the size of a football field and park in a pseudo LaGrange point closer to the sun to double the current warning period for dangerous solar flares. Slated for launch in late 2014, the instrument aboard the solar sail craft will use the sun's photon radiation to gently offset the corresponding pull of the sun's... Topics: What -- Sun, Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, Solar Sails, exploration, beyond earth orbit,... Source: http://youtu.be/8LmePYdraoU
NASA Connect segment involving students in an activity that investigates the cycles of solar flares. The video incorporates problem solving strategies while students compute percentages of M-class flares and graph data. Topics: NASA Connect, Sun, Solar Flares, M-class Flares, Graph, Problem Solving, Solar Cycles, Student... Source: http://nasa.ibiblio.org/details.php?videoid=6289&start=40&subject=Science
The shapes (luminous flame boundaries) of steady nonbuoyant round luminous hydrocarbon-fueled laminar-jet diffusion flames in coflowing air were studied both experimentally and theoretically. Flame shapes were measured from photographs of flames burning at low pressures in order to minimize the effects of buoyancy. Test conditions involved acetylene-, propylene. and 1,3-butadiene-fueled flames having initial reactant temperatures of 300 K, ambient pressures of 19-50 kPa, jet-exit Reynolds... Topics: SOLAR FLARES, VISIBILITY, SIMULATION, RESOLUTION, FAST FOURIER TRANSFORMATIONS, IMAGING...
Defect-free and defected composite thin shells with ply orientation (90/0//-75) made of graphite/epoxy are simulated for damage progression and fracture due to internal pressure and axial loading. The thin shells have a cylindrical geometry with one end fixed and the other free. The applied load consists of an internal pressure in conjunction with an axial load at the free end, the cure temperature was 177 C (350 F) and the operational temperature was 21 C (70 F). The residual stresses due to... Topics: SOLAR FLARES, SUN, IMAGING TECHNIQUES, FORBUSH DECREASES, SUNSPOTS, X RAYS, COLLIMATORS
Electromagnetic Pulse: A Catastrophic Threat To The Homeland by Robert Oreskovic & Army War College (U.S.). "This paper will examine the causes, threats, probable effects, and what measures can be taken to mitigate the potential impact to the Homeland."Digitized by www.dtic.mil Topics: EMP, Space weather, Solar flares, Solar activity, Space environment, CME, Electromagnetic Pulses
The 1859 Space Weather Event: Then and Now by E W Cliver. "The 1859 space weather event, combining the first solar flare ever reported with arguably the largest geomagnetic storm ever observed, provided a dramatic opening to a new area of Sun-Earth studies. Here I describe solar science at the time of the discovery of the flare, recount the observation, and trace the developments that led to the correct interpretation of the 1859 solar-terrestrial event by Bartels in 1937." Digitized... Topics: EMP, CME, Space environment, Solar activity, Space weather, Solar flares, Electromagnetic Pulses
In this paper, recent progress made in the design and development of an all-solid-state, single longitudinal mode, conductively cooled Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm wavelength for UV lidar for ozone sensing applications is presented. Currently, this pump laser provides an output pulse energy of greater than 1.1 J/pulse at 50 Hz PRF and a pulsewidth of 22 ns. The spatial profile of the output beam is a rectangular super Gaussian. Electrical-to-optical system efficiency of greater than 7% and... Topics: GEOMAGNETISM, SUNSPOT CYCLE, SOLAR ACTIVITY, CORONAL MASS EJECTION, SOLAR FLARES, SOLAR WIND, HIGH...
The Sun as a Non-state Actor: The Implications on Military Operations and Theater Security of a Catastrophic Space Weather Event by Brian W. Kabat. "Modern society relies heavily on robust technology to provide basic communications, positioning, timing, and general population security. The operational commander similarly relies on technology to prosecute missions both in peace and during times of conflict. This paper examines the possibility of a severe space weather event changing the... Topics: EMP, Space weather, Solar flares, Solar activity, Space environment, CME, Electromagnetic Pulses
byBOJARSKI, Z.; CZYRSKI, W.; EYSMONTT, J.; SERWICKI, H
AUSTENITIC STEELS TYPES OH18N9, IH18N10T, IH1810TB AND IH18N10MT MANUFACTURED IN POLAND AND IMPORTED X10CRNITI X10CRNITI18.9 STEEL WERE INVESTIGATED AFTER SOLUTION HEAT TREATMENT AND ANNEALING AT 500, 650 AND 750 C. THE METHODS USED WERE OPTICAL AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, X-RAY PHASE ANALYSIS AND X-RAY MICROANALYSIS. THE FOLLOWING INCLUSIONS WERE OBSERVED IN SOLUTION HEAT TREATED STEELS: IN OH18N9 STEEL NONMETALLIC OXIDE AND SULFIDE INCLUSIONS AND IN THE REMAINING TYPES OF STEELS ALSO CARBIDE,... Topics: GAMMA RAYS, SOLAR FLARES, ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION, NUCLEI (NUCLEAR PHYSICS), PHOTONS, RADIO...
byNASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio
Push-in to a region of the Sun to witness a 'solar tsunami' after a flare event. The tsunami moves hot gas (bright) out of the region, revealing cooler regions (darker) below. This view rotates on the push-in to keep the region of the flare event visible (to the left in the final frame). Note: Closeup view of the tsunami (with rotation). Data Collected: 1998-06-13T10:00:01 - 1998-06-13T19:51:26. Animator: Tom Bridgman (GST). Scientist: Craig DeForest (SwRI), Meredith Wills-Davey (SwRI).... Topics: Space science, Sun, Earth Science, Sun-earth Interactions, Solar Activity, Solar Flares, What --... Source: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/goto?2922
Correlation between X-ray emission of flares originating behind solar disk and occurrence of sudden ionospheric disturbances Topics: EMISSION, X-RAY, OCCURRENCES, SOLAR FLARES, SUDDEN IONOSPHERIC DISTURBANCES, SUN, X RAYS, EMISSION,...
Sentient Developments Podcast for the week of January 16, 2012. In this week's episode I talk about the assassination of an Iranian nuclear physicist and how scientists are increasingly coming to be seen as military targets. In addition, I discuss the Stuxnet worm, the devastating potential for solar storms, EMP, and botulinum attacks. Tracks used in this episode: Sepalcure: "Pencil Pimp" Todd Terje: "Snnoze 4 Love" Harald Grosskopf: "Synthesist" (Blondes remix)... Topics: terrorism, assassinations, science, nuclear proliferation, espionage, electro magnetic pulse, EMT,...
The field of computational aeroacoustics (CAA) encompasses numerical techniques for calculating all aspects of sound generation and propagation in air directly from fundamental governing equations. Aeroacoustic problems typically involve flow-generated noise, with and without the presence of a solid surface, and the propagation of the sound to a receiver far away from the noise source. It is a challenge to obtain accurate numerical solutions to these problems. The NASA Glenn Research Center has... Topics: RADIATION PROTECTION, HABITATS, ASTRONAUTS, EXPOSURE, RADIATION DOSAGE, RADIATION EFFECTS,...
A residual gas analyzer (RGA) used to monitor the partial pressure of a suspect contaminant material during the bake-out of a vacuum chamber and during the following test operation which involved a sensitive spacecraft instrument is described. A method for estimating the RGA sensitivity to the contaminant is presented. It is conservative from the standpoint of assessing the contamination hazard arising from the material in question. A cold finger technique that provides a surface on which... Topics: SKYLAB PROGRAM, SUN, SUNSPOTS, SOLAR ACTIVITY, SPACE STATIONS, SPACEBORNE PHOTOGRAPHY, APOLLO...
byBaker, Charles; Butler, Dan; Ku, Jentung; Kaya, Tarik; Nikitkin, Michae
This paper presents viewgraphs on Thermal Vacuum Tests of the GLAS (Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) Propylene Loop Heat Pipe Development Model. The topics include: 1) Flight LHP System (Laser); 2) Test Design and Objectives; 3) DM (Development Model) LHP (Loop Heat Pipe) Test Design; 4) Starter Heater and Coupling Blocks; 5) CC Control Heaters and PRT; 6) Heater Plates (Shown in Reflux Mode); 7) Startup Tests; 8) CC Control Heater Power Tests for CC Temperature Control; and 9) Control... Topics: EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION, SHOCK WAVES, TYPE 2 BURSTS, SOLAR FLARES, CORONAL MASS EJECTION,...
Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) developed a new sol-gel material coating for sample vials to be used in surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectroscopy. In the fields of biomedical and forensic science, the coated vials are used to identify physiological chemicals present in blood and urine. The vials are used in the pharmaceutical industry in the area of drug development and discovery. In the drug enforcement field, using the vials helps with detection of trace amounts of drugs on surfaces. The... Topics: ENVIRONMENT MODELS, EXTRATERRESTRIAL RADIATION, SOLAR CORPUSCULAR RADIATION, SOLAR FLARES, SOLAR...
byBarnes, Norman P.; Thomas, Milfred E.; Koch, Grady J.; Marsh, Waverly D
Atmospheric absorption degrades laser performance both by absorbing laser energy within the laser resonator, which increases the loss, and by inducing a thermal lens in the atmosphere. Atmospheric thermal lensing can be quite severe, even when the absorption coefficient is quite modest. A model is developed which describes atmospheric thermal lensing; time constants, which are associated with the establishment and decay of the atmospheric thermal lens, are determined; experiments are performed... Topics: ELECTRON BEAMS, X RAYS, SOLAR FLARES, SOLAR PHYSICS, CHROMOSPHERE, GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY, GAMMA...
byPowell, J. A.; Larkin, D. J.; Abel, P. B.; Zhou, L.; Pirouz, P
In this study of 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC epitaxial films we found that film morphology was strongly dependent on the tilt angle of the substrate. Large surface steps (up to 25 nm high) due to step bunching were more prevalent at smaller tilt angles. Also, 4H films were more susceptible than 6H to 3C-SiC inclusions during growth. The lateral growth of steps from screw dislocations in low-tilt-angle substrates demonstrated that step bunching on the atomic scale was anisotropic with respect to growth... Topics: SOLAR FLARES, EMISSION SPECTRA, X RAYS, X RAY TELESCOPES, GAMMA RAY BURSTS, BRAGG ANGLE,...
The reaction probabilities for ClONO2H2O- HOCl HNO3 and ClONO2 HCl Cl2 HNO3 have been investigated on sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT, H2SO4-4H2O)surfaces at temperatures between 190 and 230 K and at reactant concentrations that are typical in the lower stratosphere, using a fast-flow reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The results indicate that the reaction probabilities as well as HCl uptake depend strongly on the thermodynamic state of SAT surface: they decrease significantly... Topics: HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, EXPOSURE, X RAYS, TEMPERATURE CONTROL, PROPYLENE,...
byBEREGOVOY, G. T.; KRYLOVA, N. V.; SOLOVYEVA, I. B.; SHIBANOV, G. P
A THEORETICAL APPROACH TO THE EVALUATION OF A COSMONAUT'S PSYCHOLOGICAL RESERVES AND PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING IN THE SPACE MAN-MACHINE SYSTEM IS OUTLINED. DUE TO THE GREATER INDEPENDENCE OF THE MAN-MACHINE SYSTEM IN SPACE, THE COSMONAUT MUST BE CAPABLE OF PERFORMING AS AN OBSERVER, OPERATOR, REPAIRMAN AND AS A WORKING RESERVE ON THE SPACECRAFT. THE IDEAL FUNCTION OF THE COSMONAUT IN THE LATTER THREE ROLES IS DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF FOUR BASIC STEPS USED IN HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING:... Topics: RADIO SIGNALS, SOLAR FLARES, SUDDEN IONOSPHERIC DISTURBANCES, VERY LOW FREQUENCIES, OMEGA...
Cermet coatings, molecular mixtures of metal and ceramic are being considered for the heat inlet surface of a solar Stirling space power converter. This paper will discuss the solar absorption characteristics of as-deposited cermet coatings as well as the solar absorption characteristics of the coatings after heating. The role of diffusion and island formation, during the deposition process and during heating will also be discussed. Topics: EDUCATION, COMPUTER GRAPHICS, MULTIMEDIA, SATELLITE DESIGN, SPACECRAFT CHARGING, ARTIFICIAL...
byNASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio
Push-in to a region of the Sun to witness a 'solar tsunami' after a flare event. The tsunami moves hot gas (bright) out of the region, revealing cooler regions (darker) below. Note: Closeup view of the tsunami. Data Collected: 1998-06-13T10:00:01 - 1998-06-13T19:51:26. Animator: Tom Bridgman (GST). Scientist: Craig DeForest (SwRI), Meredith Wills-Davey (SwRI). Platforms/Sensors/Data Sets: SOHO/Extreme-UV Imaging Telescope (EIT), SOHO/Michelson Doppler Interferometer (MDI), TRACE, SOHO/Michelson... Topics: Space science, Sun, Earth Science, Sun-earth Interactions, Solar Activity, Solar Flares, What --... Source: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/goto?2921